Lloyd A. Schaefer CV

Professional Engineer ASNT Level III, ASQ/CQE, DGZfP

e-mail: schaefer@pnde.net



2002-Present: Honeywell – Global Repair Development – Principal Engineer

Lead engineer for the development & prototype build of a Aero-vehicle structural anomaly mapping and characterization system, SAM/Nova. Concept is a broadband NDE sensor suite for the external, rapid, end-to-end automated NDE assessment of external fixed wing and rotary aircraft using an automated guided vehicle. Prototype realized with sensor suite integrated into an inspection management system with a layered database, registered on the 3D-airframe model. Development is significant for its best in class inspection ROC performance achieved through exam and analysis automation. Capabilities established for detection, typing and sizing of accidental and environmental damage to composite structures. Evaluated applications include Space shuttle RCC, Shuttle external tank foam insulation attach, commercial control surfaces and empennage, A-10 wings for battle damage assessment, B-2 LO surfaces impact damage assessment and black-hawk helicopter blade composites. Additional sensors (Thermography, array eddy current, Laser UT) incorporated into design to achieve end-to-end automated assessment of surface and subsurface cracks and corrosion in skin/rib/stringer/spar constructions. Recognized for successful integration of prototype into B&GA environment for validation. 

Additionally responsible for core repair development activities including; Reverse Engineering technology development using Flash CT, scanning CMM and White Light methods to develop point clouds, establishment of software protocols from those point clouds to the STL or PM replicated part, and review and substantiation of repair processes  for both legacy and growth propulsion system turbo machinery and combustion devices.   Appointed process leader for the globalization of this effort and establishment of design services in Bangalore India.

2000 – 2002: SIEMENS PG Berlin – Gas Turbine Works – Process Qualification Lead Engineer

Team leader for turbine blades and vanes process validation team. Developed & implemented model for tracking & assuring supplier first pass yield capability for production and service aftermarket needs on the V84 & V94 engine series. Developed Radiographic, GridStation ET and UT methods for control of blade and vane processes, both in house and throughout supply chain (Howmet, Sulzer Metco, Chromalloy, PCC, TACR). Conducted tech requirements review program and implemented process key characteristic monitoring program with suppliers to establish self release environment & extract shared savings. Conducted 6 sigma projects for supplier process health. Serve as technical liaison to the coatings and materials engineering function in Muhlheim for turbine blades and vanes. Developed component repair strategies and scrap blade/vane recovery programs, e.g. recoat & laser redrill, at target suppliers. Provide native speaker liaison services for British and US engineering groups.

Key accomplishments & recognition include:

1997 – 2000 (see also 1987-1995): BOEING – PRINCIPAL ENGINEER

BCAG – MR&D In-Service NDE & Life Management Processes

Assess NDE process reliability to develop and assure component life estimates, maintenance planning, safety and inspection economics. Support TOGGA efforts to define actions for MED/WFD aging aircraft initiatives. Work with Structural Damage Technology group to develop reliability models and methods that validate probability of detection estimates, and provide real-time process health monitoring. Completed joint reliability validation program with Sandia FAA validation center for 737 lap splice propagation monitoring. Work with Delta, Northwest, United to define fleet distribution of 737 lap splice degradation due to 2nd layer bend mode cracking. Investigate enabling technologies such as; EC array probe imaging,  thermography, & pulsed eddy current to reduce costs for life extension in-service inspection. Develop and implement aging aircraft inspection procedures. Ensure audit compliance for government airworthiness directives.

Promoted from Engineer Specialist in an integrated product team (IPT) supporting development and fleet management of rocket turbomachinery and combustion device systems. Managed certified special processes and quality systems throughout development supply chain. Present and substantiate supply management needs in program reviews. Established web based process monitoring and corrective action system for suppliers. Conduct root cause analysis and supplier on-time and quality score card review. Conducted inspection & process monitoring technology development programs specific to X33.

Developed divisional software & standard for viewing and interpretation of investment cast blade radiographs and XIM CT images on remote workstations using MATLAB. Investigated new technologies such as laser shearography, laser based ultrasonics, acoustic emission, and pulsed infrared thermography, to improve inspection reliability and reduce costs. Received QA director’s award for implementation of manufacturing stream shearography on the X-33 nozzle braze bond complex, following successful completion of the X33 engine test program.


Technical lead for materials characterization & NDE efforts supporting engine/APU fleet inspection and maintenance of turbine sections. Assess SRD (service revealed difficulties) failures of turbine section components (blades, vanes, rotors) for root cause. Determine potential life extension solutions through inspection development and probabilistic life predictions. Review and approve repair and overhaul center NDI plans and procedures. Respond to regulatory authority airworthiness directives (A/Ds) supporting the FAA-DER. Support new engine development activities for AS900 and low cost blade material initiatives. Develop inspection concepts for ceramic blade initiative on next generation APU turbines. Characterize compressor section lifing issues for inspectatility within the Avco 502/507 engine family. Prepared successfully funded (2.4M) 5 year technology roadmap to reduce inspection costs by 40% while improving and assuring probability of detection. Established product of the process acceptance criteria to improve value. Constructed design templates to ensure inspectability and validated initial defect distributions for safe life designs for the DFME (Design for Manufacturing Environment) initiative. Introduced eddy current, ultrasonic and radiographic modeling capabilities and division-wide NDE data analysis network. Led the AlliedSignal representation on the FAA Engine Titanium Consortium program for inservice inspection methods development and inspection reliability prediction. NDE industrial advisory board member for AlliedSignal at the Center for NDE at Iowa State University. Transition NDE quality system to ISO compliance.


Propulsion products: Scope of responsibilities included; materials & process development, product/process assessment, & Space Shuttle main engine test/flight anomaly resolution & Quality program management. Defined, characterized and implemented materials & NDE solutions for propulsion turbine fracture critical components for the SSME and Delta, Atlas, & ALS turbomachinery & combustion devices. Performed metallurgical first article assessment and production NDE technique development for superalloy investment castings of blades, vanes, shrouds, turning vanes, volutes & inlets. Developed & implemented hybrid cast microshrink rating standard for LOX turbomachinery castings. Lead engineer for weld & braze assessment team tasked to identify and reduce NDE revealed discrepancies. The effort achieved a 38% reduction in weld process reductions through a combination of weld process improvements, weld finishing technologies and NDE method improvements. Conducted metallurgical lab investigations to correlate NDE results with structural and material requirements.

Power Systems: Quality program manager for the 5 EPS major subcontractors; Loral, LTV, Lockheed, UTC, & Moog. Prepared technical proposals for Quality & NDE efforts. Managed cost accounts and planned level of effort and staffing budgets. Co-Developed fully automated UT & ET system for the Space Station Electric Power NiH2 thinwall welded pressure vessel program. The production inspection system was submitted with Southwest Research Institute for an R&D100 award. Was named a Rocketdyne Engineer of the Year from the Space Station Electric Power program for 1993. Assure ISO9000 transition and compliance for the NDE product area. NASA qualified fracture control NDE specialist, performing MSFC-STD-1249 special level NDI. Member of Fracture control board, chairman of division NDE review board.


Provided materials and process engineering support for inertial guidance systems structures, two phase heat exchanger systems and support electronics systems. Was the division NDT level III supporting all NDE activities. Received performance recognitions for work in development of dimensionally stable investment casting alloys and radiographic test methods for investment castings, microelectronics DPA and printed wiring board analysis. Programs supported include; Peacekeeper, NAS, Ring Laser Gyro, TEMS, FEMS


Performed field NDI (Isotope radiography, PT and UT) at SoCal Edison cool water coal gasification plant, petroleum refineries and fossil fuel electric power facilities in accordance with API and ASME specifications. Perform FAA powerplant and airframe metallurgical failure analysis and related NDE
inspections. Perform NDI on customer supplied products including; castings, welded and brazed assemblies, and forgings. Write NDE specifications in response to B-2 production inspection program for composites.


Responsible for metallurgical process control of the forging operation. Supervised forging crews. Performed metallurgical (compact tension, low cycle fatigue, creep/stress rupture, metallography) and

NDI (UT, PT, RT) evaluations of aerospace applied forgings with emphasis on high temperature alloys for turbine engines, and petrochemical markets (wellhead and tubular product).


Performed metallurgical process and NDE laboratory functions as applied to deep drawn and welded pressure vessels in accordance with ASME & DOT codes, including; physical testing, heat treat, NDT (UT,RT,PT,ET), process chemical analysis and metallography.


Worked in AllisChalmers corporate R&D laboratories learning metallurgical analysis practice for materials and processes in the turbine division. Learn & apply metallographic practice, physical test techniques, metallography & NDE. Assist in collection and evaluation of impeller material failures. Work with MTS automated test systems to develop Materials Handbook V physical property data for the staff engineers. Received outstanding assessment at program completion from Dr. John Philosophos.

INSITU Computed Tomographic Failure Analysis of RVDT Thermistors

(L. Schaefer - NASA Tech Brief 1988)

Ultrasonic Inspection of turbine investment castings Using Flaw Classifier Logic (L. Schaefer, J. Willenberg - NASA Tech Brief 1989)

Laser Shearographic Inspection of Thrust Chamber Hot Gas Wall Bonding

(L. Schaefer - NASA Tech Brief 1990)

Eddy Current Flaw Discrimination In Pressure Vessels Using Pattern Recognition

(L. Schaefer, J. Willenberg - NASA Tech Brief 1992)

Computer Assisted Inspection for Welded Thin Wall Pressure Vessels

(L. Schaefer, G. Light, R. Tennis, J. Fisher - R&D Magazine - 1992)

AI for Bond Inspection - Signal to Noise Ratio Improvements

(L. Van Wyck, L. Schaefer, L. Rochester- Rockwell IR&D - 1992)

High Reliability Evaluation of Printed Wiring Boards by Radiography

(L. Schaefer - ASNT Conference proceedings - 1991)

Pre-Penetrant Surface Enhancement Techniques

(L. Schaefer - ASNT Conference proceedings - 1992)

Probabilistic NDE for Bonded Structures

(L. Schaefer - ASNT Conference proceedings. - 1992)

Developing Probabilistic NDE Solutions for the Space Station

(L. Schaefer, W. Nagel - ASQC Chapter presentation - 1993)

ASNT Visual Testing Handbook (Eighth Edition) – Visual & metallographic techniques for joining processes & microelectronics (L. Schaefer, et. al. Published September, 1993).

Quantifying Shearography for Fracture Critical ORU composite enclosures

(L. Schaefer - SPIE conference proceedings - 1995)


NDE Automation in the Inspection of Thin Wall Pressure Vessels

(L. Schaefer, M. Mitchell - QNDE conference proceedings - 1995)

Novel NDE methods for assessment of bonding in brazed anisotropic honeycomb structures

(L. Schaefer & Dr. G. Light - SAMPE proceedings – LosAngeles 1998)


Aging Aircraft Risk Based Inspection

(L. Schaefer, ASNT Seattle Section Presentation, Seattle 1999)

Process Targets and Metrics for NonDestructive Inspections

(L. Schaefer, ASQ Seattle Section Presentation, Seattle 2000)

Whole R Considerations for NDE in American Aerospace

(L. Schaefer, World Conference on NDT, Rome Italy, 2000)


Digital & Human FactorsTools for improving RT process reliability

(L. Schaefer, In-Kingdom NDE Technical Exchange Conference, Dhahran 2000)

Creating POD Practically

(L. Schaefer, R. Singh, European-American Reliability Workshop Tutorial, Berlin 2002)

Process Transparancy via 6 Sigma Programs Applied to NDE Reliability

(L. Schaefer, European-American Reliability Workshop, Berlin 2002)

SAM Automated Airframe Structural Inspection System

(L. Schaefer, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Phoenix 2003)

Ground Based Vehicle Health Monitoring for Life Cycle Cost Reduction

(L. Schaefer, SAE - Advances in Aviation Safety Conference, Montreal 2003)

Structural Anomaly Mapping for Airframes: Data  Acquisition/Detectability Testing (Page 13)

(Waled Hassan, Lloyd Schaefer, Tim Duffy, Johnathan Edwards, Dave MacEnany, Caroline Morel, Stu Rosenwasser, QNDE - Green Bay, Wisconsin 2003)


Rocketdyne Quality Engineer Of The Year, 1993: For advances in NDE on the Space Station program.

Rocketdyne Leadership Award, 1992:Excellence in management of the Space Station NDE program.

NASA Silver Snoopy, 1989:Process improvement in welding for the Space Shuttle Engine program.

Rocketdyne Leadership Award, 1988: Formation and leadership of Space Shuttle Main Engine NDE reliability improvement and cost reduction team

QA&SS Director’s Award, 1998: Development and application of laser shearography on X-33 Nozzle to optimize detectability and eliminate ultrasonic inspection costs

AlliedSignal Technology Management Award, 1996: Recognition for technology development and program management of the 731 fan disk eddy current life monitoring program

Propulsion Development Team Achievement Award, 1998: Completion of first attempt successful braze of the X-33 Thrust Ramp Hot Wall Assembly MTD

NASA Technology Patent (TU) Awards

-Computed Tomography solution for fuel valve controllers

-Automated data synthesis for Eddy Current examination of welds

-Shearographic inspection of thrust chamber hot gas wall bonding on Space Shuttle Main Engine

-Penetrant Indication measuring device

Siemens-Westinghouse Next Generation Design Philosophy Award 2001: Recognized for completion of the NDE, Quality, Specifications and Reliability chapter for the joint European-American turbine design.

Aviation Week & Space Technology - Innovation of the Year 2003


MS Technology Management, UOP Distance Learning In progress, - ECD 6/05

BSc Cum Laude Industrial Technology, University of Southern Illinois

AAS Metallurgy, Milwaukee Area Technical College.

ASNT Level III - Certificate Number MM-982 (UT,RT,PT,ET,MT)

ASQ-Certified Quality Engineer (CQE)

ASQ-Certified Reliability Engineer (CRE) – expected 12/04

AWS-CWI Examination Dec, 2004

Boeing Aircraft Structural Engineer, 1998

SixSigma Plus - Design for Six Sigma 2003


American Society for Metals (AMS)

Americal Welding Society (AWS)

American Society for Quality (ASQ)

American Society for Non-Destructive Testing (ASNT)

DGZfP – German Society for Non-Destructive Testing


Computed Tomography, Theory and Operation – ASNT 1985

ISO9000 Auditing – AlliedSignal 1996

Quality Function Deployment & Taguci methods – Rockwell 1990

Digital Signal Processing - Iowa State University 1995

Boeing D1-9000 ISO Supplier Auditing Training 1998

Design To Cost – Boeing 1998

ANSI Dimensioning and Tolerancing – Boeing 1994

Aircraft Structural Engineers certification – Boeing 1999

Six Sigma Green Belt – Siemens AG 2001

Six Sigma – Design for Six Sigma – Honeywell 2003

National Instruments - Labview - 2003

Intellectual Property Management - 2003

Advanced Eddy Current Technology - Zetec - 2003

FAA Regulatory Process Familiarization - 2004

Aviation Week and Space Technology SAM Program Award

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